Working with Structs in Swift: Basics and Benefits

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by The Captain

May 30, 2024

Working with Structs in Swift

Structs in Swift are value types that allow you to encapsulate related properties and behaviors into a single unit. They are similar to classes but have some key differences such as value semantics and lack of inheritance.

Defining a Struct

To declare a struct in Swift, you use the struct keyword followed by the struct's name:

struct Person {
    var name: String
    var age: Int

Initializing a Struct

You can create an instance of a struct by using the initializer syntax:

let person1 = Person(name: "Alice", age: 30)
let person2 = Person(name: "Bob", age: 25)}

Accessing Properties

You can access the properties of a struct using dot notation:

print( // Output: Alice
print(person2.age) // Output: 25}

Structs are Value Types

Unlike classes, which are reference types, structs are value types. This means that when you assign a struct instance to another variable or pass it as a function argument, a copy of the struct is created:

var person3 = person1 = "Eve"
print( // Output: Alice
print( // Output: Eve}

Methods in Structs

Structs can also have methods to perform operations on their properties:

struct Rectangle {
    var width: Int
    var height: Int
    func area() -> Int {
        return width * height

let rectangle = Rectangle(width: 10, height: 5)
print(rectangle.area()) // Output: 50}